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In its general sense the emergence and development of philosophical sciences and its various branches including mathematics and natural sciences dates back to the pre-Islamic era. During the post-Islamic era, however, the Iranian scholars contributed immensely to these sciences and led them to greater heights. Here we intend to briefly discuss the historical evolution of mathematics and natural sciences in the cultural territory of Iran after the advent of Islam with a glance at its pre-Islamic background. Besides what has been quoted from the holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH) regarding the earnestness of the Iranians in gaining knowledge – on which great scholars like Ibn Khaldun have emphasized - historical reports of the early centuries of the Islamic era as well as documents that have survived from the great libraries of the pre-Islamic era clearly indicate towards the enthusiasm of the Iranians in the pursuit of various fields of knowledge and in the preservation of sources of learning.

The most important or at least one the most important and reputed centers of learning of pre-Islamic Iran was the Jondi Shāpur Hospital and University, which was apparently active in all kinds of scientific fields initially and which gradually advanced in the field of medical science more than the other disciplines while the hospital gained worldwide recognition. As per historical records this center of science and learning was also equipped with a reputable library and is known to have organized scientific and scholarly conferences and seminars. Jondi Shāpur retained its grandeur through the Islamic era until the early Abbasid period during which its physicians and administrators established the medical school of Baghdad. Furthermore, during the 4th and 5th Centuries AH/9th and 10th Centuries AD, the Iranians established a number of renowned schools in Dorhā (Edsā), Nasibin, and other Iranian cities. 

* source: Keramati , yunes " Iran Entry " The Great Islamic Encyclopedia . Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.10 , pp.663 - 666

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