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 Introduction

The origin of the term “tadwin" dates back to the 2nd Century AH/8th Century AD during which period a number of works referred to as “diwāns” had come to be produced. To put it in other words, the term “tadwin” refers to the process of writing or compiling a diwān. The Persian word “diwān”, which originated from the term used to refer to the government registers used mainly during the Sassanid period was also used to refer to some early works in the area of hadith and fiqh that were compiled in a systematized order. The important question one is faced with here is whether the term “diwān” and its meaning have been merely derived from the Persian language.

While emphasizing on the fact that by the word, “tadwin”, is meant a rather intricate process in relation to written texts – a process that is much more complicated than recording and putting down matters - it should also be mentioned that in the traditional sources, the history of this aspect of tadwin is shrouded in ambiguity, and instead, importance has been given to the history of recording and writing of ahādith. As regards the history of “tadwin” it is very interesting to note that the most prominent early organized texts in the areas of Qur’anic studies, hadith, and fiqh were written within the cultural environment of Iran and the territories that were under its cultural influence. For instance, reference can be made to an exegesis written by Zahhāk bin Mozāhem, of which two different Khorāsāni narrations by Jobeir bin Sa’id Balkhi and Nahshal bin Sa’id bin Vardāb were available in the first half of the 2nd Century AH/8th Century AD. Similarly, mention can be made of Hosein bin Wāqed Marvzi, a student of Abdollāh bin Barideh, who was a prominent figure in the field of hadith in Khorāsān and was one of the earliest scholars of the eastern part of Iran who had written books in the area of exegesis and hadith. A prominent personality in the hadith circles during this period was Ibn Mobārak Marvzi (d. 181 AH/797 AD) who had availed of the teachings of the great scholars of Khorāsān like Rabi’ bin Ons as well as the scholars of other Islamic territories and had produced important works in the fields of exegesis, hadith, and fiqh.

* source: Pakatchi , Ahmad " Iran Entry " The Great Islamic Encyclopedia . Ed. Kazem Musavi Bojnourdi.Tehran: The Center of Great Islamic Encyclopaedia , 1989-, V.10 , pp.654

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